Overview on Covid-19 treatments

An Overview on Covid-19 Treatments

In COVID, your mask is the most influential vaccine. Yes!! we can say that at least for now until the doctors/scientists find a promising cure for the novel coronavirus. Despite the ease in lockdowns people all over the world are still pushing to normalize their lives. So far the total number of cases in India has reached 8,267,623 whereas the number of deaths is at 123,139. COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. Most infected people will develop mild to moderate illness and recover without hospitalization. The most common symptoms include dry cough, fever, and tiredness though few unusual indications also include aches and pains, sore throat, diarrhea, headache, and loss of taste or smell.

Here we’ve noted all of the possible treatments that are currently used to treat infected patients. Obviously, they are used depending on how deep a particular patient is infected by the virus from moderate to a critical level. Usually, mildly infected patients are now being advised to home quarantine and to recover without the use of any medication or treatments.

These 16 significant treatments have been divided on the basis of the following measures;

  • Based on their effectiveness and
  • Based on their functioning mechanism

covid treatment by effectiveness

Widely Used

These are the treatments that have been broadly adopted to treat patients.

  1. Prone Positioning
  2. Ventilators

Promising Evidence

These treatments only propose early promising outcomes against the virus however, more research is necessitated.

  1. Remdesivir
  2. Dexamethasone

Tentative/Mixed Evidence

Such treatments propose promising results only under limited conditions like in animals or in retrospective subjects.

  1. Favipiravir
  2. EIDD-2801
  3. Recombinant Ace-2
  4. Convalescent Plasma
  5. Monoclonal Antibodies
  6. Interferons
  7. Cytokine Inhibitors
  8. Cytosorb
  9. Stem Cells
  10. Anticoagulants

Not so Promising

These treatments majorly represent that they do not work.

  1. Lopinavir-Ritonavir
  2. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Chloroquine

Covid-19 treatments by function mechanism

Blocking the SARS-CoV-2 Virus

Drugs that prevent the novel coronavirus from replicating and seizing human cells are derived as antivirals. This category includes some of such antivirals. You can find a detailed description of each below.

  1. Remdesivir
  2. Favipiravir
  3. EIDD-2801
  4. Recombinant Ace-2
  5. Lopinavir-Ritonavir
  6. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Chloroquine

Putting out a Friendly Fire

Scientists and doctors are testing various drugs that can prevent the virus causing the immune system’s overreaction.

  1. Dexamethasone
  2. Cytokine Inhibitors
  3. Cytosorb
  4. Stem Cells

Mimicking the Immune System

Coping the immune system response can also work against the virus, few drugs are available that mimics similar to the immune system. Blood plasma is also included.

  1. Convalescent Plasma
  2. Monoclonal Antibodies
  3. Interferons

Others

  1. Prone Positioning
  2. Ventilators
  3. Anticoagulants

1.Remdesivir

Remdesivir developed by an American biopharmaceutical company named Gilead Sciences, Inc. This antiviral drug is sold under the brand name ‘Veklury’. The formula of Remdesivir is C27H35N6O8P. In India, this drug is sold by Cipla Ltd. for use in COVID-19 patients at approx. ₹5,000. The drug was originally developed to defend infected patients against Ebola/Hepatitis C however, it didn’t prove effective. Research says that this drug can reduce a patient’s hospital stay by 11 to 15 days. Remdesivir is dosed in the form of injection. 

2.Favipiravir

Favipiravir is an oral flu drug that blocks the virus’s capability to replicate its genetic material. The molecular formula of Favipiravir is C5H4FN3O2. Favipiravir is sold under the brand name Avigan. In India, Glenmark develops and manufactures Favipiravir being called under the brand name “Fabiflu”. A 200mg Favipiravir tablet will cost ₹75.

3.Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)

The first drug found to be useful against coronavirus is HCQ. Hydroxychloroquine is not a novel but an old anti-malarial drug. Later on, the drug was found to be not helpful with Covid-19. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) now advises that the drug can cause severe side effects to the heart and other organs when used to treat the virus. The formula of HCQ is C18H26ClN3O.


coronavirus structure


4.Lopinavir-Ritonavir

In the beginning, this combination of drugs appeared to stop the novel coronavirus from replicating but later on, clinical tests in patients showed unsatisfactory outcomes, and the WHO suspended them in August month. Yet, the dugs might still play a role as a defensive option and in treating patients with mild symptoms. The combination of lopinavir with a low dose of ritonavir is sold under the brand name ‘Kaletra’ as a fixed-dose combination medication for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. The chemical formula is C37H48N6O5S2.

5.Recombinant ACE2

Novel coronavirus enters a cell by locking on to a human protein known as ACE-2. Recombinant ACE-2 is an artificially created ACE-2 proteins that might be able to attract it away from vulnerable cells. They have shown assuring results in trials on cells, but not yet in animals or people.

6.EIDD-2801

This antiviral designed to fight flu, in the beginning, showed hopeful results against SARS-Cov-2 during studies in cells and on animals. Human trials are yet to occur. EIDD-2801 drug is given via oral dosage. Formula: C13H19N3O7.

7.Dexamethasone

This cheap and widely available steroid blunts many types of immune response. Doctors have long used it to treat allergies, asthma, and inflammation. A study of more than 6000 people found that dexamethasone reduced deaths to one-third in patients on ventilators, and by one-fifth in patients on oxygen.

8.Cytokine Inhibitors

The body produces molecules called cytokines to fight off diseases. But in excess, they can trigger a ‘cytokine storm’, which causes the immune system to overreact to infections. Researchers have created several drugs to halt cytokine storms, including tocilizumab, sarilumab, and anakinra. While a few have offered modest help in some trials, others have faltered.

9.Cytosorb

Cytosorb is a cartridge that filters cytokines from the blood in an attempt to cool cytokine storms. The machine can purify a patient’s entire blood supply about 70 times in a 24 hour period.

10.Stem Cells

Certain kinds of stem cells can secrete anti-inflammatory molecules. Researchers have tried to use them to treat cytokine storms, and now dozens of clinical trials are underway to see if they can help COVID-19 patients. But stem cell treatments haven’t worked well in the past, and it’s not clear yet if they’ll work against the coronavirus.

11.Convalescent Plasma

A century ago, doctors used plasma from the blood of recovered flu patients to treat flu patients. A similar strategy has been tried on severely ill Covid patients and the early results are promising. The FDA has authorized plasma therapy for very sick Covid patients.

12.Monoclonal Antibodies

Convalescent plasma contains a mix of antibodies, only some of which can fight the coronavirus. Researchers have identified the most potent Covid antibodies and their synthetic copies known as monoclonal antibodies – can be manufactured n bulk and injected into patients. Safety trials for this treatment have only begun.


SARS-CoV-2_cycle
SARS-CoV-2_cycle

13.Interferons

Interferons are molecules that our cells produce to make the immune system attack viruses. Injecting synthetic interferons is now a standard treatment for immune disorders. Animal trials suggest that this can be useful as both prevention and treatment for Covid-19.

14.Prone Positioning

The simple act of flipping coronavirus patients onto their bellies and open up their lungs. The maneuver might help some but not all.

15.Ventilators

Instruments helpful to Covid patients for breathing. Severe respiratory disorder patients may need to have a ventilator for breathing until their lungs heal.

16.Anticoagulants

The coronavirus can invade cells in the linings of blood vessels, leading to tiny clots that can cause strokes. Anticoagulants are commonly used to slow the formation of clots.

Source: Times of India News



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